Commenting about the entry of external players, Survivor 3 expressed dissatisfaction about the treatment native villagers sometimes got: “Soldiers whipped us while we were waiting in queues to get relief items. humanitarian aspect of disaster management. TOC has been successfully applied in manufacturing, supply chain, project management, military, medical settings, management accounting and in services sectors (, the application of the TOC concept to the humanitarian supply chains, where the focus is to, save lives and stop suffering. This realization has made me to continue keeping some of the children here. World Food Programme (UNWFP), UN Refugee Agency, World Health Organisation, organisations (NGOs) availed food and other relief items required to support devastated, communities in the aftermath of Cyclone Idai (, that timely delivery of critical goods is a crucial element of an effective disaster response to. We wish to thank all the participants in Rusitu Valley who took their time to share their experiences about the Cyclone Idai disaster. However, transportation is dictated by road conditions. This criterion uses ecological potential centered largely on climatic and edaphic factors, where productivity diminishes as one moves from region 1 to region 5. significant challenge during and after the cyclone as the districts of Chimanimani and, Chipinge were hit by electricity supply disruptions. Collaborative emergency management: Better community organising, better public preparedness and response. Unavailability of electricity, can be devastating as it hampers the speed of delivery of life-saving interventions in, post-disaster situations. 2008. In a similar observation, Allen (2006) and Troy et al. Alexander (2010) shares a similar observation at the grassroots level in which local authorities are expected to react to disasters first before they call for external assistance. From the perspectives of the local people themselves, such experiences have given them the opportunity to test their community-based interventions against a background of the weak disaster response culture cited by Bongo and Manyena (2015). The North Indian Ocean—the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, generates only 7% of the world’s cyclones. According to the survivors, there were also individuals who demonstrated care by offering to assist those mothers who found it difficult to escape with children. Although the worst affected village was Dzingire, other villagers from Ndiyadzo, Ndima, Hode, Ndakopa, Mutsvangwa, and Vimba also teamed up in what is locally referred to as chihwirangwe, the act of addressing a problem together. The main form of livelihood of the peasantry population in the study area is smallholder banana farming. These events can be chronicled from the 2000 Cyclone Eline that caused 91 deaths, 357 injuries, destroyed 59,187 houses, and resulted in about 2.7 million people being affected (Brown et al. This study examines the effects of supply chain agility and supply chain resilience on performance under the moderating effect of organizational culture. 2006. Geography Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe, Nelson Chanza, Chipo Mudavanhu & Albert Manyani, School of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Nelspruit-Mbombela, 1200, South Africa, Department of Geosciences, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa, Infrastructure Development Bank of Zimbabwe (IDBZ), Harare, Zimbabwe, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Harare, Zimbabwe, You can also search for this author in Interviews were held with 15 respondents from humanitarian, agencies and some government departments. One of the survivors supported this saying: “We only saw water flooding into houses and it was too late for us to evacuate. 1993; Bolin and Stanford 1998; Twigg 1999; Allen 2006; Kapucu 2008; Gwimbi 2009; Varda et al. (2008), an important component of community engagement is the availability of local resources. understand and contextualize these terms. In one, case, a government employee describes the challeng, Yes it is true, due to poor communication network, there was delay in assessing the needs and, gathering the necessary data to ensure our responses were effective and addressed people, There was risk of illnesses like dysentery and cholera following the cyclone in the affected areas and, help took long to come due to lack of means to communicate. Participant 11 noted: Transport was a major problem in assessing the victims, aid. Originality/value One of the NGO officials had this to say: Electricity disruption affected routine vaccination services. These reports by the participants were actually part of the local early warnings that they used in devising rescue operations. The research reported in this paper confirms the potential for 3DP to become a game-changer, especially in locations which are logistically difficulty to support. Limitations and recommendation for further studies, The study used a cross-sectional study design where humanitarian organizations that, participated in Cyclone Idai relief operations in Zimbabwe were investigated. economic factors with Cyclone Idai humanitarian relief operations. chain risk factors that were prevalent in Cyclone Idai relief operations in Zimbabwe. It was reported that on the day of concern, people met in small groups discussing Cyclone Idai, but they had a feeling that, like other previous events, the cyclone would just be an event in passing. Victims of Cyclone Idai Need 86,000 Tonnes of Commodities. 2019. One of the participants indicated, “My wife also went to one of the places where most survivors were accommodated. Under the main category of infrastructure, four sub-categories are identified: postulates, that most rural areas in developing countries become inaccessible as the, is the single greatest determinant of success, noted how social media successfully assisted individuals before, during and after, highlight that communication deficiencies result in shortage of urgent, ). 2015). The study only dealt with adults above 18 years of age. Misra, S., R. Goswami, and R. Jana. “The wind damage was way beyond anything ever experienced in Beira before,” said Ben Lamoree, a Dutch consultant who leads Beira’s post-cyclone recovery task force. and Hanif, R. (2013), chain risk management in the healthcare sector: a case study of Malawi, Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, operations in Uganda. Previously use of drones as a relief distribution vehicle was studied in several studies where required number of drones and the best locations for the relief centers were investigated. Rapid review question: What contextual factors (e.g. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. We hope that our results will be a good guidance for managers and decision makers of humanitarian supply chain for better understanding of food supplying practices before earthquake. 2009; Islam and Walkerden 2017; Misra et al. Cyclone Idai hit the country on 15 March 2019, leading to missing and displaced persons; loss of lives, property, livestock, crops, and livelihoods; and destruction of infrastructure and the environment. The current paper bridges this gap by synthesizing the diverse academic journal papers into the categories based on the design continuum, relationship continuum, process continuum and economic continuum. However, there have been very few studies that consider the, A sudden-onset disaster such as hurricane, tidal wave, or earthquake creates a nearly insurmountable challenge in bringing humanitarian relief to those who desperately need it. It is to the best knowledge of these researchers that this is a unique study carried out to examine humanitarian supply chain risk factors in Cyclone Idai relief operations in Zimbabwe. of humanitarian aid to victims of Cyclone Idai in Zimbabwe. Therefore, this study empirically identifies the key factors considered for selecting humanitarian relief warehouse location as criteria in AHP. economic and political/governmental risk factors. whereby 194 questionnaires were distributed and 102 completed, thereby generating a response rate of 53%. Corroborating Kelman’s (2019) observations that actions to prevent disasters can be voluntary, this study indicated that people do not remain passive when they face an impending disaster, but rather take actions to minimize impacts. difficulties in realising the desired humanitarian supply chain performance. government of Zimbabwe and corporate firms in helping the victims of Cyclone Idai. Focus on the importance of local action in disaster studies continues to get traction. , AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie). Food is not enough for, everyone. In the former case, interview transcripts and notes were later translated into English. Findings Varda, D.M., R. Forgette, D. Banks, and N. Contractor. One of the participants reported that, “We also educated the community and other children against use of such discriminatory terms as “victims” and “orphans” of Cyclone Idai. Community leaders and P&G’s modern trade retailers played an important role in collaborating in this humanitarian supply chain to enable the successful delivery and usage of the donated water purifier. The only form of cleavage existed later between the survivors and the general villagers and it arose following the (mis)treatment of the two groups by external aid agencies. , Vol. You could not even remember who had given you what exactly, but assistance came from various sources” (Survivor 2). Hence, the purpose of this paper is to utilize a systematic literature review (SLR) to explore the SCR research trends and gaps within the management literature. In the case of Cyclone Idai in Chimanimani, the rich accounts about how the disaster occurred by those observing, witnessing, experiencing, and participating in the flood have been useful in informing subsequent interventions by the disaster management community. If properly recognized, for example through use of community coordination strategies that are cited by Kapucu (2008), this variable can actually enhance public response to disaster. Bristol: Environment Agency. In Mozambique: The 2019 cyclones. All interviewed participants working for, NGOs and government concurred that both telephone and Internet communications were, disrupted, depriving affected people and humanitarian organisations of efficient flow of, information. There were mixed reactions in the way people perceived early warnings and this affected their actions. Responding flexibly to, humanitarian needs is conditional on political, social, infrastructural and environmental, may differ depending on various factors, such as the type, impact and location of the disaster, and local conditions in the affected regions (. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/2042-6747.htm, year 2000, Cyclone Japhet in year 2002 and Cyclone Dineo in year 2017 (, The increase in cyclones occurrences has consequently increased the demand for, humanitarian relief response. Most of the people managed to heed the call to assemble at a police station, where water had not yet reached. The survivors spent the night in shops or verandas of business people until the following morning when prompt arrangements were then made for their welfare. As a consequence, there was a shortage of essential goods. The rest of this article is organized as follows: after the introduction, section 2 provides a brief. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, humanitarian supply chain practices for supplying food before earthquake (FHSC) explain Education (E), Information systems (IS), Readiness for logistics and distribution (LD), Coordination (CO), Assessment (AS), Culture (CU) and Monitoring (M) as a higher order latent variable. Disaster risk reduction through community participation. The results provide further understanding to practitioners who often struggle to develop appropriate strategies for different phases. The purpose of this information collection effort was to gather evidence on the role of local action in disaster responses, which can help frame the role of local participation in disaster management systems. Hero 3 weighed in saying, “We had to motivate each other, assuring that it was possible to rescue the people who were trapped despite the high risk.” These statements reveal that individuals were collectively driven by the need to save life. While preserving humanitarian space in conflict zone is proving challenging to humanitarian organizations because of various factors, it is however clear that the security of aid workers is a major concerns for aid organizations working in areas experiencing social change or armed conflicts. The road network was severely damaged by the cyclone and the floods such that evacuations of, endangered villagers and organized distributions of urgently needed relief items were delayed by, several days. After literature review and interview with experts, 7 criteria and 19 sub-criteria identified for humanitarian supply chain practices for supplying food before earthquake. Purpose Output metrics include the percentage of on-time, deliveries, quantity and quality of the donations delivered as well as the time between a, disaster striking and the time the supplies are delivered (, performance metrics, humanitarian actors have to live with humanitarian supply chain risk. dependent on the humanitarian relief concerns. Managing supply chains in times of crisis: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics, Aid agencies demand removal of soldiers in Cyclone Idai hit areas, Soldier, taxi driver fined for stealing Cyclone Idai aid, A wave of destruction and the waves of relief: issues, challenges and, Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, An analysis of the Cyclone Larry emergency relief chain: some key success, International Journal of Production Economics, Building a more complete theory of sustainable supply chain, Emergency relief logistics: an evaluation of military, non-, International Journal of Logistics: Research and, Measuring the economic impact of cyclones in Madagascar. 2 Literature Review Focus on the importance of local action in disaster studies continues to get traction. Some scholars have demonstrated the utility of local action through concepts such as “social networks” (Varda et al. The study It was this vigilance and quick decision that saved the reported 40 people who survived the floods. Africa as there is a limited number of published studies on the impact of social media in financial institutions. Findings To assess the influence of increased precipitation from Future Sandy, two approaches were compared: an outage model fit with a full set of variables accounting for both wind and precipitation, and a reduced set with only wind. The maximum travel distance of drones without a need to recharge is limited by their endurance. The delivery framework is further validated with the real-life case study of a multinational firm during the 2011 Thai floods. The actual interviews were held with 15 participants who were purposively, ). Clearly, this background makes the community highly vulnerable to weather-related hazards such as floods and landslides. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge in South Results indicate that the cooperation attribute is the most important factor when selecting facility location in humanitarian relief, followed by national stability, cost, logistics and location. The individuals who actively participated in rescue operations were clearly evident at the onset of the impending disaster. Article This paper therefore present a review of humanitarian space and the security of humanitarian aid workers. In Risks and conflicts: Local responses to natural disasters, ed. Enhancing community-based disaster preparedness with information technology. Slack, N., Brandon-Jones, A. and Johnston, R. (2013). One area where local action can feed into our understanding about disasters is the detailed accounts given by the people who directly experienced the events. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential for this technology to be used in support of the preparation and response to a natural disaster or complex emergency and as part of developmental. Humanitarian supply chains need to be agile and able to respond quickly, to unpredictable events effectively and efficiently (, must flow from donors through the supply chain to the final consumers at the right time, at, the right cost, in the right quantities and to the right place. We have used the dynamic capability view to conceptualize our theoretical models for different phases of humanitarian supply chain (pre-disaster and post-disaster phases). The first actors to respond to the Cyclone Idai disaster in Rusitu Valley were the local shop owners and shop attendants. community structures and dynamics) are relevant in the urban and rural areas affected by cyclone Idai (Sofala and Manica provinces)? 2017), “community participation” (Zubir and Amirrol 2011; Preston et al. Prepared for the, global assessment report on disaster risk reduction 2015. net/english/hyogo/gar/2015/en/bgdocs/inputs/Pathirage et al. Through capturing narratives of participants who were recruited through chain referrals, the research intends to understand how local actors, utilizing their local-based response systems, managed to fill in the voids that characterize disaster management practice in Zimbabwe. “Community Samaritans” was adopted to describe the nature of help they offered to the survivors, including the homeless, by a specific category of community members. Furthermore, secondary data were, obtained from available publications, blogs and newspapers to triangulate with interviews, alleviating the biases of a single source (, detailed and rich descriptions of the human, complimented other qualitative research methods as it suggested some questions that, included minutes and other publications by member organizations. The role of social capital in post-flood response and recovery among downstream communities of the Ba River, Western Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. Nematropica 43(1): 113–118. It is also important to note that although most people remained awake, as evidenced by their capability to move out of their houses and assemble at a police station, communication systems were reportedly down, electricity had gone off, there was no mobile network and phones were inoperative. Although the community response system also facilitated the operation of external disaster management agencies, their premature withdrawal tended to weaken the trust and values existing in the area, and created tensions between the disaster-affected people and other villagers. Therefore, this review will further provide information for the policy makers, responsible personnel as well as researchers on the vulnerability of the communication systems during disaster and the future direction of effective communication system in Malaysia. The Kopa settlement, which was completely destroyed by floods, had about 200 families. Harare: Best Practices Books. Potchefstroom: North West University. This paper presents comprehensive analyses of the cyclonic disturbances data of the North Indian Ocean of 140 years (1877–2016) and investigates the likely impacts of climate change on tropical cyclones frequency and intensity on Indian coasts based on historical cyclone data and recent model based findings on plausible changes in Indian Ocean SSTs and circulation systems. Kapucu, N. 2008. The study also recommends proactive response to cyclones. The government should partner, with the local communities, private companies and nongovernmental agencies to raise the, much needed financial resources to overcome the challenge of poor economic strength. They are so desperate for food to the extent of sleeping with men in charge of the food. management strategies in limiting the risks that Cyclone Idai presented. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Gwimbi, P. 2009. Manyena, S.B. Cyclone Kenneth had winds equivalent to a Category 4 hurricane. Donations towards the needs of the survivors were overwhelming. The answer to this question is no. This framework explains the modalities where strategic philanthropy can be successful when collaborating with key humanitarian supply chain actors. 2013. 2015), “community empowerment” (Rajeev 2014), or “community-based” responses (Allen 2006; Troy et al. Climate change working paper 3. literature review, a global coverage survey of contraceptive service delivery in humanitarian settings (coverage survey), two series of KIIs with stakeholders across the humanitarian-development nexus, and three case studies in diverse humanitarian settings—Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh,4 Borno State, Nigeria,5 and Cyclone Idai-affected Mozambique.6 (Community Samaritan 1). This is one of the first studies to adopt the TOC to overcome. For instance, drones and robots can be used to locate, survivors and transmit information to emergency teams. resources will increase preparedness for cyclones. Social media has also contributed to disaster response. Expected outputs from the research. ZimStat (Zimbabwe National Statistical Agency). Manyena. (2008) and Lunga (2015) also note the opportunity to use locally available resources, which allows active participation, inclusivity, and confidence building among community members. A model utilising a stochastic process is developed to study the supply chain distribution process as, Humanitarian crisis leave the affected people in need of water, health care, and shelter. The TOCs was, limit the achievement of organizational goals and developing plans to alleviate these, along the supply chain prevents the full realization of desired performance goals. This observation resonates with the thoughts of Appleby-Arnold et al. Kates, and G.F. White. The people in Chimanimani speak Ndau, a dialect of the dominant Shona language in Zimbabwe. Design/methodology/approach Some measures taken recently by humanitarian organizations include suspending aid when and where the security of their employees is under threat and in some cases withdrawing completely from such environment. Humanitarian firms therefore need to consider differing social and cultural, conditions of affected regions during humanitarian response (, therefore the intention of these researchers to link social issues with supply chain. 2006. Adoption of best, management practices such as pooling logistics resources in the supply chain through, sharing of infrastructure, vehicles, generators, technical resources and skills allows last mile, logistics to be optimised and avoid the duplication of costs (. About a month ago Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique were devastated by a tropical cyclone that was described by the United Nations as one of the worst disasters ever to strike the Southern Hemisphere. This study sought to review energy factors that influenced, Environmental risks represent one of the most significant, ). Bongo, P.P., and S.B. This paper seeks to assess the last-mile of the supply chain to ensure relief is delivered to those who need it. quality service, many supply chains encounter risks that seriously threaten the achievement. It was also clear that community members did not exclude each other based on their groups. Population Research and Policy Review 28(1): 11–29. Findings of the Case Study Analysis 64 6.3. These operations were led by traditional leaders. The results from our data suggest that SCAG and SCRES are two important dynamic capabilities of supply chain, have significant effects on pre-disaster performance (PRE-DP). reduce or mitigate the effects of the cyclone. The concept of resilience revisited. These phases do not have clear boundaries, but overlap chronologically, as well as in terms of ongoing activities. Cheng, J.C.P., Law, K.H., Bjornsson, H., Jones, A. and Sriram, R.D. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65(2): 269–293. The paper concluded that social work values and principles assign the profession to respond timeously to the contemporary challenges facing the society. Overall, this thesis adds to the current literature by a number of novel findings concerning both the causes and the consequences of corruption. The strengths and weaknesses of these local social networks deserve research attention as communities rely on them to respond to emergencies. In practice, this dual system may create tension between the traditional leadership and the RDC system (Mararike 2011). In the, absence of public financial resources, the private sector plays a huge role in saving lives and, The study also recommends governments to prepare contingency financing plans to fund, disaster relief and recovery such as self-insurance (contingency reserves and funds) and risk, transfer arrangements using insurance. 2011. The settlement was established in an area traditionally used for livestock grazing and it drew settlers from other places outside Chimanimani. One of the rescuers said; We extended the rope that was tied with a rock at its end so that it could reach the target. Consequently, generalizability to. disruption of transportation infrastructure can have a huge negative outcome to disaster, victims, response teams and government. Against a backdrop of a weak disaster management and response system in Zimbabwe, this study gives several insights into the roles of local actors and the challenges they face when experiencing disasters. Simba, F.M. Some parts of the area were completely cut off from the rest of the country for several days, as roads and bridges were damaged and communication systems were disrupted. The last major cyclone to reach Zimbabwe, Cyclone Idai in March last year, hit Chimanimani. Community-based disaster preparedness and climate adaptation: Local capacity-building in the Philippines. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-020-00290-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-020-00290-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in They conceived the idea of using a rope after realizing that the lives of people who were crying out for help were in their hands. When interviewed, one officer from a humanitarian organization responded as follows: There was massive destruction of storage facilities. 2.4 Humanitarian supply chain performance, Humanitarian supply performance measures are critical for building excellent humanitarian, measurement dimensions are: output performance, supply chain flexibility and resource, purpose of any relief supply chain and measures the effectiveness with which supply chains, are able to supply the required aid. In order to show the extent of cyclone damage, the study also observed the once built up Kopa settlement and captured it in photographs. To them, everything was lost, including people’s valuables, money, livelihoods, lives, and infrastructure. The results were presented in vignettes. This hampered the, delivery of food and medicine and made safety sites inaccessible. Community response to hazard information. important to measure the total supply chain costs including labour, transport, warehousing, humanitarian supply chain measured in terms of efficiency is dependent on supply chain risk. It is not uncommon in humanitarian, operations that some staff members engage in violations like sexual abuses of the victims or, among themselves at the detriment of the operations. The study found that this demonstration of oneness was not limited to the short-lived burial of the deceased, but spanned the long post-disaster situation in the form of attending to the welfare of survivors. Commercialization of fruit production is mainly stymied by poor earth roads that get muddy and slippery in the rainy season. All rights reserved. How well the different actors blend in disaster action, however, deserves further examination. In other words, after realizing the urgent need to intervene to save lives, they felt that their joint ideas would offer the best form of assistance under such an emergency situation. We simply thought that these were just social media news. Re-classification of agro-ecological regions of Zimbabwe in conformity with climate variability and change. Some women and girls have been forced into exchanging sex for food. Empowerment ” ( community Samaritan 2 ) to assess how supply chain operations, presented. Gwimbi ( 2009 ) argues that indigenous cultures encourage local participation, build self-reliance, threatened. Traditionally used for livestock grazing and it drew settlers from other places outside.! Sites inaccessible ) stresses that integration of various players is largely inﬂuenced by the individuals... Finer than that size between the emergency response to disaster, victims, response:. Relevant in the Cyclone overflow is finer than that size go an mile... 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